The Town of Southampton re-zoned three properties located in Hampton Bays adjacent or close to the Shinnecock Canal by amending the Town’s Zoning Code to add section 330-248(V), creating the Canoe Place Inn, Canal and Eastern District Maritime Planned Development District. This local law, adopted on January 13, 2015, provides for the rehabilitation of the Canoe Place Inn for use as an inn, catering facility, and restaurant. The law also provides for the development of a 37-unit luxury, waterfront town-house community and associated wastewater treatment facility on the Shinnecock Canal. Four individual property owners/taxpayers formed an unincorporated community group called Shinnecock Neighbors to oppose the zoning changes and to challenge the local law via a hybrid Article 78 proceeding and declaratory action. In the case, entitled Shinnecock Neighbors, et al. v. Town of Southampton, R Squared Development LLC et al., 3 NYS3d 679 [Sup. Ct. Suffolk Co. 2016], the Shinnecock Neighbors allege, in part, that the local law should be deemed null and void because the Town Board failed to comply with the New York State Environmental Quality Review Act (“SEQRA”) and take the requisite hard look at the potential environmental impacts of the proposed development. Several of the respondents moved to dismiss the petition and complaint on the grounds that the petitioners lacked standing. In an order dated August 30, 2016, the Hon. William B. Rebolini, Justice of the Supreme Court, Suffolk County, dismissed the motion and held that the four petitioners and their unincorporated community group, Shinnecock Neighbors, had the requisite standing to bring the proceeding/action.
As noted in the decision, in order to establish standing in a land use matter, a party “must suffer direct harm (i.e., injury-in-fact) that is in some way different from that of the public at large and, further, that the claimed harm is within the zone of interests protected by the statute or statutes alleged to have been violated.” Shinnecock Neighbors v. Town of Southampton, 3 NYS3d at 683. An organization or association such as Shinnecock Neighbors has standing when one or more of its members has standing to sue, the association demonstrates that the interests it asserts are germane to its purpose, and it is evident that neither the asserted claim nor relief requires the participation of its individual members. (See Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. v. County of Suffolk, 77 NY2d 761, 570 NYS2d 778 ; Matter of Dental Society of State of NY v. Carey, 61 NY2d 330, 474 NYS2d 262 ).
Three of the four individual petitioners owned residential properties within 500 feet of the proposed wastewater treatment facility. As a result, the Court found that these three individuals had standing and stated, “[a]s it is alleged that each of them resides in close proximity to the proposed development, there arises a presumption that each will be adversely affected in a manner different from the public at large.” Shinnecock Neighbors v. Town of Southampton, 3 NYS3d at 684. Additionally, the Court found that their allegations of harm, including increased traffic, increased noise and air pollution, and degradation of the community from the proximity of the wastewater treatment facility were within the zone of interests protected by SEQRA and the Town’s zoning code. Id. at 684.
Interestingly, the fourth individually-named petitioner asserted a different rationale for standing. Although this petitioner lived about one mile from the canal and was not within the zone of interests protected by the statute, she claimed to be an environmental activist, professional artist and “art activist” who required access to the canal as it was a significant source of her creative inspiration and that the proposed development would have a profound negative effect on her work. The Court found that this fourth petitioner had standing and stated: “…her use and enjoyment of the area is more intense than that of the general public and, therefore, that she may be directly harmed in a way different in kind and degree from others…like claims of specific environmental injury, injury to a petitioner’s aesthetic and environmental well-being, activities, pastimes or desire to use and observe natural resources may also be found to state cognizable interests for purposes of standing.” Id. at 684. As each of the four petitioners had standing, the Court determined that the Shinnecock Neighbors also had the requisite standing. The underlying proceeding/action is still pending before the Court.
Back on September 6, 2016, this blog commented on the case of Matter of Long Island Pine Barrens Society, Inc. v Central Pine Barrens Joint Planning & Policy Commission, 138 AD3d 996 [2d Dept 2016]. In that case, none of the individual petitioners lived within the zone of interests. Nevertheless, the Appellate Division found that the Society had standing because one of the petitioners, the Society’s Executive Director, used and enjoyed the Pine Barrens to a greater degree than most members of the public. Thus, based on the holdings in the Shinnecock Neighbors v. Town of Southampton and Matter of Long Island Pine Barrens Society, Inc. v Central Pine Barrens Joint Planning & Policy Commission cases, an organization may have standing even though all its members reside outside the zone of protected interests if at least one member can articulate a rationale that shows he or she has an interest that is different from the general public, and that interest may be adversely impacted by the proposed action.