Following the adoption of a moratorium on development along Port Washington’s waterfront, North Hempstead Town officials have proposed new zoning regulations designed to preserve public access and prevent excess building in Port Washington’s Waterfront Business (“B-W”) District.  The Town’s B-W District encompasses approximately 10 acres adjacent to Manhasset Bay, and runs along the west side of Main Street from Sunset Park to Dolphin Green.  According to North Hempstead Town Code, Article XVIIA, the B-W District was established “to promote, enhance and encourage water-dependent uses and increase opportunities for public access along the Town’s commercial waterfront.”

At a well-attended meeting held on July 25, 2018, at the Port Washington Public Library, Supervisor Judi Bosworth, Councilwoman Dina De Giorgio and Commissioner of Planning Michael  Levine, using PowerPoint slides, presented the Town’s findings made during the moratorium and their ideas and proposals for new zoning regulations in the B-W District.

Commissioner Levine compared the unique character of Port Washington’s waterfront to vibrant waterfront communities on Long Island, such as Port Jefferson, Northport and Greenport, and also Newport, Rhode Island, all of which provided inspiration for the proposed changes.  He then identified the goals and objectives of the new zoning regulations, which include encouraging an appropriate mix of land uses, contextual building design, and the creation of more public access and open space.  The proposed regulations are intended to create a more vibrant and accessible waterfront community, while maintaining the area’s small-town character.

In order to accomplish the stated goals and objectives, the proposed regulations would place additional limits on building height and density to reduce the scale of development and require that new structures be arranged so that Manhasset Bay is both visible from the street and accessible to the public.  This would be accomplished by requiring, among other things, a minimum view corridor of at least 35 feet extending from the front property line to the water’s edge.  A public access corridor of at least 20 feet would also be required along the shoreline that would allow the Town to extend the Bay Walk south to Sunset Park.

While the proposed regulations call for a reduction in the “as of right” height limit and density, they offer incentives for increased height and density to developers who propose smaller buildings, provide additional open space, and incorporate “green” sustainable infrastructure and enhanced architectural design elements into their buildings.  For instance, the 18 dwelling units per acre baseline density for residential buildings in the B-W zone may be increased up to 36 dwelling units per acre based on a numerical scoring system that rewards developments that maximize open space and public access and are designed with desirable architectural elements.

In addition to changes to the bulk and area requirements of the zone, certain developments proposed in the B-W District would be subject to an amended review process under the new regulations.  New development on properties larger than 25,000 square feet would be subject to site plan approval by the North Hempstead Town Board, which would review the layout of the building on the site and the adequacy of landscaping, lighting and building design.  Developments which propose a residential component would also require a special use permit from the Town Board.

According to Town officials, the Town Board intends to hold a public hearing to consider the adoption of new regulations for the B-W District in the fall, prior to the expiration of the moratorium in November 2018.

Questions regarding zoning regulations in Port Washington or the Town of North Hempstead?  Please contact me at aguardino@farrellfritz.com.

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In opposing Crossroad Ventures, LLC’s (“Crossroad Ventures“) endeavor to construct a vacation resort partially within the Town of Shandaken, (“Town“), grassroots preservation organization Catskill Heritage Alliance, Inc. (“Alliance“) commenced two consecutive Article 78 proceedings challenging certain approvals.  The Court addressed multiple appeals from both proceedings in Catskill Heritage Alliance, Inc. v. Crossroads Ventures, LLC, et al., 161 A.D.3d 1413 (3d Dep’t 2018).  In its opinion, the Court reinforced the principle that a board of appeals is the sole interpreter of its ordinance and that interpretations by other boards or bodies may be fatal to municipal approvals and determinations.

In this case, the Town’s zoning ordinance allowed a resort with a special permit and site plan approval from the Town Planning Board (“Planning Board“).  However, the ordinance did not define “Vacation Resort.” In 2000, Crossroads Ventures requested an interpretation and definition of the term to determine what uses are allowed as part of a resort. The Town Zoning Board of Appeals (“Zoning Board“) responded to the request by analogizing a vacation resort to a hotel, motel or lodge development and determined the term included all uses integral to the hotel, motel or lodge development and clearly accessory to it, as well as other uses allowed in the area, either as of right or by permission. After receiving the interpretation, Crossroads Ventures undertook a prolonged environmental review and developed a plan for the resort: two hotels, a conference center, community centers and additional lodging scattered among several duplexes and multiple unit buildings.

In 2013, towards the end of its environmental review, Crossroads Ventures made an application to the Planning Board for a special permit and site plan approval. The Planning Board issued the special permit and conditionally approved the site plan. The Alliance commenced its first Article 78 proceeding challenging these determinations. The Supreme Court, Ulster County, issued a decision in October 2016 denying Crossroad Venture’s motion to dismiss and granting the Alliance’s petition, in part. The Court found that, although the Planning Board properly determined that non-habitational structures fell within the clear definition of permissible accessory uses to the resort, it improperly resolved an ambiguity in the ordinance as to whether detached duplexes and multiple unit buildings were permitted uses in the area. Accordingly, the Court annulled the determinations and remitted the matter to the Zoning Board to address the propriety of residential structures. The parties appealed the October 2016 decision.

On remittal, the Zoning Board interpreted the ordinance and clarified that detached residential units were permitted “lodges.” Thereafter, the Planning Board, again, granted Crossroads Ventures’ application, issued a special permit and conditionally approved the site plan. The Alliance commenced its second Article 78 proceeding challenging both the Zoning Board’s interpretation and the latest Planning Board approvals. The Supreme Court dismissed the petition by decision dated July 2017 and the Alliance appealed.

On appeal, the Appellate Division, Third Department, decided both appeals. With respect to the October 2016 decision, the appellate Court affirmed both the denial of the motion to dismiss and the granting of the petition, in part. The Court noted that zoning boards of appeals are the bodies with the authority to interpret ordinances – not planning boards. To the extent any ambiguities exist in the pertinent ordinance, a planning board must request an interpretation thereof from its board of appeals. In 2000, the Zoning Board interpreted the “Vacation Resort” term to include conference centers and community centers as integral, accessory uses, but it did not opine on detached duplexes and multiple-unit buildings. This was problematic because the latter structures are habitations and could be viewed either as permitted lodges or as new multifamily dwellings prohibited under the ordinance affecting the project area. The Planning Board should have requested another interpretation from the Zoning Board, rather than resolving the ambiguity itself. Therefore, the appeals Court affirmed the lower Court’s October 2016 decision to annul the Planning Board’s approvals for the resort and to remit the issue to the Zoning Board.

Next, the appeals Court reviewed the July 2017 decision. This later decision addressed both the Zoning Board’s interpretation of the duplexes and multiple-unit buildings and the Planning Board’s subsequent (second set of) approvals. The appeals Court found the Zoning Board’s interpretation deserved deference because it was not a purely legal interpretation – it was rendered upon the facts of Crossroads Ventures’ proposal. The Town ordinance defined “multiple dwellings” as structures within three or more dwelling units, but stated that rooms in a boardinghouse, dormitory, motel, inn or other similar building do not constitute dwelling units. Although the Town ordinance did not define the term “lodge,” the Zoning Board noted that a lodge is commonly defined as a transient residence, such as an inn or similar building having rooms that are excluded from the ordinance’s definition of dwelling unit. Ultimately, the permanence of residency was determinative.

The Zoning Board concluded that a lodge includes structures containing one or more units of lodging and sleeping accommodations for transient occupancy in connection with the special permitted use of a hotel, lodge development or vacation resort held under common ownership – so long as the users had primary residence elsewhere. And, the Zoning Board determined that the proposed structures at the resort were intended for transient occupancy, as rentals or timeshares; therefore, these were permitted lodges, as opposed to prohibited new multifamily dwellings. The Court found this interpretation to be rational. The Court also found that the Planning Board, relying upon the Zoning Board’s 2000 and 2017 valid interpretations, rationally determined to issue the special permit and conditional site plan approval for the resort. Therefore, the Court affirmed the July 2017 decision.

 

Last week, we reported on a $10 million award issued by the State to help revitalize downtown Hicksville. Well, the Governor is at it again. On August 8th, Governor Cuomo announced the winners of the third round of the Downtown Revitalization Initiative; and Central Islip is the big winner on Long Island.

The State’s Downtown Revitalization Initiative, started in 2016, is touted as being “a comprehensive approach to boosting local economies by transforming communities into vibrant neighborhoods where the next generation of New Yorkers will want to live, work, and raise a family.”   The ten Regional Economic Councils each get to select one downtown from its region “that is ripe for revitalization and has the potential to become a magnet for redevelopment, business, job creation, greater economic and housing diversity, and opportunity.” The selection is made from communities that submit applications to the applicable Regional Economic Council. The criteria for selection “includes: physical environment, past investment, future potential, recent or impending job growth, support for the local vision, and readiness.” The Village of Westbury was Long Island’s first round winner. Hicksville was its second round winner.

The Downtown Revitalization Initiative process is described in great detail in the State’s April 2018 Downtown Revitalization Initiative Guidebook.  The revitalization effort starts with a Local Planning Committee.  This committee, composed of local stakeholders, oversees the development of the strategic plan for the redevelopment.  The State provides this committee with support and technical assistance from a team of planners and consultants. The process also includes public engagement initiatives “to enable residents, public and private agencies, community organizations, local businesses, and institutions of learning to work towards a shared vision for a more vibrant downtown.”

So what is Central Islip’s proposed vision for a more vibrant downtown? According to the Central Islip Application submitted to the Long Island Regional Economic Council, the vision for Central Islip’s downtown includes:

    • Transit oriented development aimed at encouraging transit use and other forms of green transportation. This priority will center around the former Central Islip Train Station on Carleton Avenue.
    • Purchasing blighted and underused properties for use as parking facilities to increase downtown parking and facilitate redevelopment.
    • Rezoning and lot consolidation to encourage downtown redevelopment and growth, eliminating uses that are not compatible with a downtown, such as vehicle repair shops, and consolidating substandard lots to make them usable and encourage appropriate development.
    • Redeveloping the former Central Islip train station property, which would include transforming a brownfield site into a parking lot for an adjacent vacant piece of property owned by the Town’s Community Development Agency.
    • Expanding the Central Islip LIRR Train Station parking lot by adding 100 new parking spaces.
    • Acquiring and constructing cross access easements between Town parking facilities and adjacent properties to create shared parking to assist with traffic flow and mitigate traffic hazards along Carleton Avenue.
    • Redeveloping the former Central Islip Fire House into a mixed-used building or community center.
    • Implementing the Town’s Complete Streets Policy throughout the downtown to enhance affordable transportation, driving commerce in downtown, calming traffic and enhancing the general health and welfare of the residents of the Central Islip community.
    • Constructing Traffic Roundabouts and other safety mitigation techniques.

This expansive and impressive vision will take time to achieve, and the $10 million award is only a fraction of the investment that will be needed to achieve it. Hopefully, the Town of Islip is able to convert its vision into a thriving downtown for the Central Islip community. Stay tuned.

After six years and vigorous public comment, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) has adopted substantive amendments to the implementing regulations of the State Environmental Quality Review Act (SEQRA). The new regulations take effect on January 1, 2019 and will apply to all pending and future actions for which a determination of significance has not been made prior to the effective date.

The changes to the SEQRA regulations affect both substantive and procedural aspects of the SEQRA process. Of particular note are the changes to:  the list of Type I Actions (projects that carry a strong presumption of significant adverse environmental impact and typically result in the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement [EIS]); the List of Type II Actions (projects that the DEC has pre-determined to not result in significant adverse environmental impacts and are exempt from environmental review); “scoping” (the procedural step which identifies the adverse environmental impacts to be studied in an EIS, and which will now be a mandatory step in the SEQRA process), and clarification on the requirements for preparing a Draft EIS (DEIS).

The amendments affecting Type I Actions (6 NYCRR §617.4) can be described generally as altering the thresholds which trigger certain Type I designations.

  • In cities, towns and villages having a population of 150,000 persons or less, the following are now Type I Actions:
    • The addition of 200 units or more that will connect to existing community or public water or sewerage systems. The threshold was previously 250 units.
    • The addition of parking for 500 vehicles or more.
  • In cities, towns and villages having a population of 150,001 persons or more, the following are now Type I Actions:
    • The addition of 500 units or more that will connect to existing community or public water or sewerage systems. The threshold was previously 1,000 units.
    • The addition of parking for 1,000 vehicles or more.

Long Island communities will be particularly interested in both of these thresholds. While the island is home to nearly 100 villages that will be subject to the lower threshold applied to municipalities of 150,000 persons or less, it is also the home to the Towns of Babylon, Brookhaven, Hempstead, Huntington, Islip, and Oyster Bay, all of which have populations in excess of 150,001 persons, according to recent census data. Projects in those town which have a large residential component (and are located outside of incorporated villages) will need to be mindful of the 500-unit threshold.

    • The amended SEQRA regulations preserve a limitation on the Type I designation for the creation of new residential units. As in the old SEQRA regulations, the number of new units alone is not the only factor in determining whether a Type I designation is appropriate. The project must also tie in to an existing community or public water or sewerage system. Thus, a project that proposes its own water and sewerage facilities will not necessarily trigger a Type I designation, even if the number of proposed units exceeds the numeric threshold.
  • Any Unlisted Action which exceeds 25% of any Type I threshold and which is located wholly or partially in, or contiguous to, a place or district that has been listed or has been determined to be eligible for listing on either the National or State Register of Historic Places is a Type I Action. This revision is something of a double-edged sword for developers in that while a project will no longer be Type I solely because of its proximity to a historic site—because the project must now also exceed 25% of some other Type I threshold under §617.4—the requirement that “eligible” sites also be considered increases the possibility that a project is located near a site capable of triggering a Type I designation.

The amendments affecting Type II Actions (6 NYCRR §617.5) add several new categories of actions that are exempt from environmental review going forward. They include:

  • Retrofitting an existing structure and its appurtenant areas with green infrastructure. While the phrase “green infrastructure” might evoke any number of green practices or technologies that have come to the forefront of eco-conscious design, the revised SEQRA regulations narrowly define the term as “practices that manage storm water through infiltration, evapo-transpiration and reuse…” The definition then includes an exclusive list of the specific practices that constitute “green infrastructure” for purposes of Type II exemption. Thus, the exemption is narrower than it would appear at first blush.
  • Installation of telecommunications cables in existing highway or utility rights of way and utilizing trenchless burial or aerial placement on existing poles. Notably, the exemption is limited to telecommunications “cables” and, therefore, does not include small cells, “nodes” or Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS), which have become prevalent in the telecommunications industry. Prior iterations of the Type II amendments did include co-location of telecommunications antennas as a new exempt category; however, that exemption was removed in response to public comment.
  • Installation of a solar array involving 25 acres or less of physical alteration and located on: a closed landfill; a commercial or industrial brownfield site or Environmental Restoration Project site that has received a certificate of completion; an inactive hazardous waste site (under certain conditions); or already disturbed area located within a publicly-owned wastewater treatment facility or an industrial zoned site.
  • Installation of a solar array on any existing structure, provided the structure is not listed on the Federal or State Register of Historic Places; determined to be eligible for listing on the historic registers; or within a district that has either been listed or determined to be eligible to be listed on the historic registers.
  • Reuse of a residential or commercial structure, or a mixed use residential and commercial structure, for a use which is permitted under applicable zoning, including uses by special permit, provided the reuse does not trigger any Type I threshold. Critics of this particular exemption argued that local zoning laws are often outdated; and as a result, the exemption may prevent environmental review of a use that, while legally permissible, is nonetheless out of touch with the present character of the district in which it is located. The DEC has countered that in almost all situations, a given project will be subject to some form of discretionary review, during which impacts of concern can be vetted and mitigated. Additionally, because the exemption encourages the reuse of structures, it will also reduce the use of virgin building materials and the creation of construction and demolition debris, which are deposited in landfills.

Under the current regulations, Scoping (6 NYCRR §617.8) is an optional step in the SEQRA process. However, as of January 1, 2019, scoping will be mandatory for “all” EISs, except for Supplement EISs prepared pursuant to 6 NYCRR §617.9(a)(7). Incidentally, lead agencies will no longer have the option of accepting a proposed DEIS in lieu of an environmental assessment form because submission of a DEIS must now be preceded by a scoping session and the lead agency’s acceptance of a final, written scoping document. Opponents of this change have argued that, for some projects receiving a positive declaration, the environmental assessment forms will be sufficient to identify the environmental impacts requiring study in an EIS. Therefore, for those projects, mandatory scoping prior to preparation of a DEIS will result in unnecessary delay of the SEQRA process and added expense for the project sponsor.

The amendments affecting DEIS preparation (6 NYCRR §617.9) seek to clarify the requirements for a complete DEIS and avoid undue delay of the SEQRA process while the sponsor, lead agency and public debate the adequacy of a DEIS’ contents. The regulations provide that a DEIS is complete when it: (1) meets the requirements of the written final scope and sections 617.8(g) and 617.9(b) of the SEQRA regulations; and (2) “provides the public and involved agencies with the necessary information to evaluate project impacts, alternatives, and mitigation measures.” In addition, the regulations mandate that the completeness of a resubmitted DEIS be evaluated solely based on a list of written deficiencies provided by the lead agency during its review of the prior version of the DEIS (with some exceptions). Time will tell whether these particular amendments will have their desired effect of streamlining the DEIS phase of the SEQRA process. Reasonable minds may yet disagree on whether a DEIS “provides the public and involved agencies with the necessary information to evaluate project impacts, alternatives, and mitigation measures.”

The 2018 SEQRA amendment contains additional changes, including additional Type II categories not discussed here and new publication requirements for SEQRA materials. A complete copy of the 2018 SEQRA amendment and related materials can be found on the DEC website at: https://www.dec.ny.gov/permits/83389.html.

If you have questions regarding SEQRA regulations, please contact me at pbutler@farrellfritz.com.

See also, related SEQRA topics written by blog-colleague Charlotte A. Biblow, by clicking here & here!

 

 

 

 

 

In April 2006, the Town of Huntington adopted a local law (Local Law 14-2006) that added § 198-27(A)(22) to its Zoning Code. That local law allows apartments on the top floors of some mixed-used buildings in its C6 General Business District, where the ground floor is occupied by a permitted commercial use. While the code provides certain restrictions on these upstairs apartments, such as no upper floor can exceed the footprint of the ground floor and the mixed used building must meet all height, area and bulk requirements, these limitations are not enough for some residents. They contend that the zoning allows too many apartments to be piled on top of a commercial establishment, resulting in over-development, traffic, pollution, loss of open space and other adverse impacts.

At the May 1, 2018 Huntington Town Board meeting, a petition signed by almost 1000 residents was presented to the board, demanding that the board hold a public hearing to revoke or significantly limit the number of apartments. Some of the proponents of this change noted at the meeting that Huntington “was becoming Queens” as a result of the 2006 local law. Several of the speakers pointedly reminded the Supervisor of statements he made during his campaign, to preserve the suburban nature of the Town. This grass-roots effort to change the zoning code may be having an impact on the Town Board.

The Supervisor reportedly asked the town’s planning department to review the C6 zoning provision in an effort to strike a balance between encouraging business development while at the same time preserving the quaint nature of the town. Once the planning department completes its review and issues its recommendation, the Town Board will then decide whether to hold a public hearing to change the zoning code. Stay tuned.